Investigating the mechanisms underlying fixation durations during the first year of life: a computational account

Saez de Urabain, Irati R. (2015) Investigating the mechanisms underlying fixation durations during the first year of life: a computational account. PhD thesis, Birkbeck, University of London.

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Abstract

Infants’ eye-movements provide a window onto the development of cognitive functions over the first years of life. Despite considerable advances in the past decade, studying the mechanisms underlying infant fixation duration and saccadic control remains a challenge due to practical and technical constraints in infant testing. This thesis addresses these issues and investigates infant oculomotor control by presenting novel software and methods for dealing with low-quality infant data (GraFIX), a series of behavioural studies involving novel gaze-contingent and sceneviewing paradigms, and computational modelling of fixation timing throughout development. In a cross-sectional study and two longitudinal studies, participants were eye-tracked while viewing dynamic and static complex scenes, and performed gap-overlap and double-step paradigms. Fixation data from these studies were modelled in a number of simulation studies with the CRISP model of fixation durations in adults in scene viewing. Empirical results showed how fixation durations decreased with age for all viewing conditions but at different rates. Individual differences between long- and short-lookers were found across visits and viewing conditions, with static images being the most stable viewing condition. Modelling results confirmed the CRISP theoretical framework’s applicability to infant data and highlighted the influence of both cognitive processing and the developmental state of the visuo-motor system on fixation durations during the first few months of life. More specifically, while the present work suggests that infant fixation durations reflect on-line perceptual and cognitive activity similarly to adults, the individual developmental state of the visuo-motor system still affects this relationship until 10 months of age. Furthermore, results suggested that infants are already able to program saccades in two stages at 3.5 months: (1) an initial labile stage subject to cancellation and (2) a subsequent non-labile stage that cannot be cancelled. The length of the non-labile stage decreased relative to the labile stage especially from 3.5 to 5 months, indicating a greater ability to cancel saccade programs as infants grew older. In summary, the present work provides unprecedented insights into the development of fixation durations and saccadic control during the first year of life and demonstrates the benefits of mixing behavioural and computational approaches to investigate methodologically challenging research topics such as oculomotor control in infancy.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Copyright Holders: The copyright of this thesis rests with the author, who asserts his/her right to be known as such according to the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. No dealing with the thesis contrary to the copyright or moral rights of the author is permitted.
School/Department: School of Science > Psychological Sciences
Depositing User: ORBIT Editor
Date Deposited: 22 Oct 2015 12:01
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2015 12:10
URI: http://bbktheses.da.ulcc.ac.uk/id/eprint/148

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